2016_09_18_corbynleadership

What the F*** Does Corbyn Know About Leadership?

5 Minute Read

The UK’s Labour Party Leadership Election is won. Next… Is Jeremy Corbyn the man we need to lead the country?!

“This kind of (genuine) leadership (within community and voluntary organisations) relationship is something that is quite special and memorable…” “…It’s something that we should aim for if we wish to secure a sustainable future for everybody on the planet: the kind of leadership that is required if we are to confront complex and massive scale issues such as global warming, poverty and the control of virulent diseases.  Leaders will continue to play an important role in this relationship.  We will still need leaders, but they will be different types of leaders.” 

Whilst writing my masters dissertation on leadership within community and voluntary organisations, I came across the above quote in Jackson and Parry’s “A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership”.

This quote inspired me to focus my research on discovering what convinced these two leadership experts that community and voluntary organisational leaders were so exceptional.

In this article I’ll be making the case that, as a community and voluntary organisational leader, Jeremy Corbyn has the profile required to bring the type of change we need to confront the “complex and massive scale issues” that we’re facing today. Sorry about the click bate title.

The leadership theories that stood out most prominently among the literature included the following.

2016_09_16_distributedleadershipDistributed leadership

Distributed leadership theories claim leadership to be a collective social process. The roles of leader and follower emerge and change depending on the requirements of a situation and the experience of those involved. This indicates a reliance on personal “referent” power as opposed to positional power that was given to them by someone of higher authority. Teams that exhibit distribution appear to be more successful than other, more leader-centred organisations and they also allow followers to achieve their higher order needs (see Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs). Therefore it seems that distributed leadership has some applicability to community and voluntary organisations. This is the functional model of worker’s co-operatives. In my experience of working for the Unicorn Grocery in Manchester, the co-operative structure is superior in the benefits it brings to its members/employees.

Read more about Distributed Leadership.

2016_09_16_transformationalleadershipServant leadership

Servant leaders’ main focus is on serving followers, without this being a means to enlisting support toward achieving the organisation’s aims. However, it is impossible to be certain of a leader’s true intentions. Servant leaders aim to empower followers to achieve their higher order needs and they also seem to rely heavily on their personal power. Servant leaders also aim to create a sense of community, which is brought about by selecting people who fit with the organisation’s culture. They then shape the organisation to fit these peoples’ talents instead of pushing them (as traditional organisations do) to fill the gaps found within the fixed structure. Therefore it seems that servant leadership holds great applicability toward community and voluntary organisations – a statement that has been supported in the literature. Greenleaf’s interest in community seems to further supports his theory’s application to community and voluntary organisations.  As a leader, I find that when I am in service to others, instead of when trying to fulfill some material or egotistic need, I am much better at getting things done. I had this experience when managing my team of volunteers at The Local Veg Box.

Read more about Servant Leadership.

Results

I then went on to interview several community and voluntary organisational leaders and cross-referenced my findings with the literature. I ended up with a set of characteristics and beliefs that I found to be present in such leaders. These, in no particular order are:

(a) passion, (b) belief in self and vision, (c) belief in community, (d) belief in equality and uniqueness of individuals, (e) commitment to empowerment and personal development of followers, (f) experienced in overcoming challenges, (g) humility and an aversion to cultish behaviour, (h) belief in building a culture of shared aims, (i) belief in enjoying life, (j) leading by example, (k) inclusion of followers in decision-making, (l) compassion, (m) being genuine, (n) understanding of psychology, (o) motivation and human needs, (p) self-reflective.

Corbyn’s Profile

With the recent Labour party leadership election in the UK, we have seen Mr. Corbyn announce that he is redesigning the way that the party campaigns. This is as a result of more than doubling the party’s membership to be the biggest political organisation in Western Europe. He often refers to his approach as a social movement. A community and voluntary organisation if you will, that will move forward by educating and emboldening tens of thousands of labour members to campaign on behalf of the party on the run up to the next general election.

With the announcement of the Labour Organising Academy, we see the Corbyn team preparing to hand-over the campaigning reigns to its membership. Corbyn’s stubborn refusal to submit to his peers’ leadership challenge was due, he claims, to his respect for the mandate given to him by the Labour membership. This clearly shows that he considers his leadership a service and a duty to those who elected him.

(b) belief in self and vision, (m) being genuine – Corbyn always seems to end up on the right side of history. He remains fervently committed to his vision of a better society, usually, and for a long time, against the majority opinion. This belief in his self indicates a strong level of sense and self-awareness (his positions have remained largely static), allowing him to behave genuinely as himself and confident in his vision. Only to be validated once the damage has been done. Read more.

(f) experienced in overcoming challenges – Having been elected as Labour leader he faced constant challenges, mockery and attempts at intimidation, often at the hands of his colleagues. He has, with grace and humility, remained steadfast in his commitment to the people who elected him. And now, winning his second labour leadership election in as many years.

(j) leading by example – This can be seen in his insistence on taking public transport and keeping his expenses (our tax money) to a bare minimum – less that £10 per year. And so should all MPs, whilst earning a basic salary of over £70,000.

(n) understanding of psychology – Corbyn has created some strong policies surrounding mental health and was responsible for the UK’s new Mental Health Minister. Read more.

So, in 2020, maybe sooner, our nation will have to decide if Corbyn is capable of leading the government. Well, if we’re to take him as a leader of a community and voluntary organisation (albeit a rather large one), then my opinion is that yes he does!

He displays many of the characteristics I identified in successful community and voluntary organisational leaders. He certainly seems to be a “different kind of leader”, perhaps the kind that Jackson and Parry predicted would emerge as a result of the challenges the world currently faces.

Conclusion

Mainstream politics has been so useless at solving the problems of the world for so very long. And we’re bored. We’re sick and tired of the lies and deceit. Ideally our society would operate in a way that equally distributes responsibility among its citizens. A co-operative approach. However, not everyone is informed, nor skilled in leadership. So we need someone in the meantime who can help guide those of us who aren’t, toward taking responsibility for ourselves and our communities. We want someone who will be genuine and stand up for our beliefs in the inter-rim. We want someone who won’t represent the interests of a corporate elite or the minority whom the system serves very well currently. Instead we want someone who will represent all of the people in our country. This will be a ripple of hope in a dirty pond. One that will reach the progressive initiatives of other nations and move us toward a better world.

If all that Corbyn does is move us in a favourable direction, toward a more just, peaceful and regenerative society, then I support him. I hope you will too.


What do you think? Does Corbyn have what it takes? Does he fit (or not) with the characteristics I’ve listed? Comment below.
2016_09_16_lookingat2016

Dave’s Year: Looking back on 2015

4 Minute Read

David discusses traveling, tribe and learning to move with the current of life

“With these options in mind, I decided to return to the UK, get a dead-end job for six months, save and go. Remaining “out of context” seemed by far the best option, until I got to Bristol…”

This year has been pretty adventurous, as my years go… I’ve moved abroad, lived on a farm and traveled. I’ve been a labourer, website developer and festival organiser. I also ate and drank far more than my guts should be able to handle… I reached the other side of the world, only to realise that my place was back in the UK with my community. With a fresh perspective, I am now finding new and exciting opportunities that I didn’t expect.

traveling traveling traveling traveling traveling traveling traveling traveling traveling traveling traveling

Travelling the world

After spending eight months in Portugal, I took the opportunity to travel. Over two months I visited Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Malaysia and United Arab Emirates. Almost everyone I met was extremely accommodating. A good welcome was to be expected from friends in Australia, Philippines and UAE. But as a total newcomer to New Zealand and Malaysia, the welcome was just as warm. Other traveling Brits were equally impressed with the ease at which people approached one another and struck up conversations. There’s the British reserve for you… After buying a pint for a performing guitarist in a pub, I was given the full tour of Wellington, NZ. In Sarawak, Borneo I was plied with free food and drink, attended free feasts and was welcomed into the rain-forest home of a Bidayuh family. I spent most of my “down time” thinking about my next steps. I’d had various offers of work along the way. I could help set-up a business in Melbourne. Work in an ex-pat (immigrant) bar in Kuching. Work in a hostel in Rotorua. With these options in mind, I decided to return to the UK, get a dead-end job for six months, save and go. Remaining “out of context” seemed by far the best option, until I got to Bristol…

community community community community community community community community community community community community community

Returning to Tribe

Bristol is a city that has been on my radar for close to a decade. Most of my core group of friends live there. I’d forgotten the impact their presence has on my state of mind. On top of that, Bristol is diverse, with a rich history of creative, independent thought. I immediately fell in love with the place. With a desire to stay in mind, I started to look for more “appropriate” work. I applied to charities and social enterprises, looking for work in marketing, office management and events. Failing that, I would join a call centre and follow my original travel plan. The job hunt involved the usual self-evaluation. What can I sell (without selling my soul)? How should I sell it (without being inauthentic)? I found a few great (on paper) opportunities, which didn’t come off and I’m now glad they didn’t. Finally, I had found an opportunity in Devon that stood head and shoulders above the rest. I immediately forgot all of the reasons I wanted to be in Bristol.

purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose purpose

Taken from www.embercombe.org

Embracing one’s purpose in life

I could potentially spend eleven months living and working (voluntary) at Embercombe. To describe this place as only an education centre and intentional community does not do it justice. Their aim is to empower people to realise their unique strengths – a cause I’m extremely passionate about. Very little encouragement is given (in our education system) to the discovery and development of ones natural gifts. More often we’re encouraged to fit into the prevailing economic model. I’d like to see this changed in my lifetime. So I went to Embercombe for three days to assess whether it was right for me (and me for them). It was fantastic! I met interesting and interested people, worked the land, spent time in nature and ate excellent, home grown food. All whilst living in a yurt with a wood-burning stove. Beautiful. But after just three days, I was exhausted. Emotionally, physically, drained. As everything was full on most of the time, I found it difficult to honour my inner introvert and take time for myself to process everything. When I returned to Bristol I almost instantly remembered why I had wanted to stay in the UK. I wanted to contribute to my community. To give a year of my life to Embercombe, whilst extremely valuable, would have been a big sacrifice.

work work work work work work work work work work work work work work work

Taken from www.davidpschofield.me

“Settling” for the right work

Back to the job hunt… Following my exposure to Embercombe’s philosophies and an impassioned talk offered by its founder, Mac Macartney’s, I was in question mode… Why am I doing the things I’m doing? Am I living courageously enough? What more could I do to live up to my potential? (Appropriately, as I write, this song came on Spotify). Looking at my Google Calendar, full of interviews, I realised that working full-time was not for me, right now. Even working part-time for charities with noble causes wasn’t right. So what should I do? To pay the rent, I was/am picking up a few shifts with my friend at Plaster Bristol – reconnecting with materiality. I will also be working on IT projects at Embercombe one week per month – reducing my food bills. I am developing a website in return for Indian Head Massage through Street Bank. I also have a business ideas bubbling (The Ethical Organiser), which I need time and space to develop. Not to mention, working on Toward Community. So, it’s essentially a full-time (plus) job, but set-up unconventionally. I encourage people to look beyond the context that has been chosen for them. If the “get a job, work full-time, buy a house” route works for you, then great. But the amount of people I know doing so and that are miserable doing so, baffles me… There are alternatives. But in order to live a life more authentic to you, you must first figure out what you are in service to. What is your life’s purpose?

2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016 2016

Taken from www.thesacredmasculine.net

Looking forward to 2016 and beyond

Figuring out our purpose can be a long, but immeasurably valuable process. In order to help me along this new phase of my life, I have refined my life’s vision (It’s not the first draft, but with each I’m getting closer to the core of who I am…) This will serve as an overall guiding statement, a purpose that will keep me on course toward my future. In it’s most current form, it reads:

“To create and protect opportunities that empower people; directing their collective energy toward creating just, peaceful and regenerative societies.”

2016_09_16_servantleadership

Leadership: A Service

4 Minute Read

Pointing out an approach to Leadership that would Change the World

“…it is the responsibility of organisations to re-create a sense of community, which can only be achieved by servant leaders”

“Servant leadership” has become popular in the 21st century, although the term was first coined by Robert Greenleaf in the 1960-70s. Greenleaf had a background in teaching, and his theories have since been widely applied within education. The theory is truly people-orientated, in that the goal of leaders is to serve followers (not as a means to enlisting support toward achieving the organisation’s aims). However, the altruism of each leader’s intention may be difficult to judge.

Servant leadership theory acknowledges some key inherent traits of servant leaders. It differs from other theories in that it begins “with an analysis of leader motivation” (Smith, Montagno, & Kuzmenko, 2004) – before leading, leaders must first scrutinise their motivations for doing so. Waddell proposes that servant leaders are introverted people, who tend toward self-reflection.

Traits of Servant Leaders

servant leadership

Source – James Nichols

Sendjaya et al. claims the traits of servant leaders to be listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to growth of people and building communities. Patterson also claims that servant leaders demonstrate agapao love (familial love), act with humility, are altruistic, are visionary for their followers, are trusting, empower followers and are serving.

These traits, and the theory’s acknowledgement of the limitations of traditional position power (given to leaders by a “higher authority”), suggest a reliance on personal, “referent” power. Further, it is claimed that servant leaders must rely on their values to influence followers. However, it is inherently difficult for organisations to teach values, making servant leadership difficult to operationalise. Becoming a servant leader can be a long process.

What Servant Leaders do

servant leadership

Source – Robert Wurtz

Forming a part of their strong values system, is the servant leaders predilection toward social change. Greenleaf felt that society had lost a sense of community due to the growth of organisations – hindering our ability to effectively provide human services. He therefore suggests that in order to provide these services, it is the responsibility of organisations to re-create a sense of community, which can only be achieved by servant leaders. The first step in creating this sense of community is to select followers who fit the organisation’s culture. Culture is defined here as a set of shared assumptions, values and beliefs. Then once selected, organisations must be flexible and mould themselves around their followers’ abilities, instead of pushing them (as traditional organisations do) to fill the gaps found within the fixed structure.

As with distributed and situational/contingency leadership theory, roles emerge from interactions between leaders, followers and the situation, lubricating the ability of followers to self-actualise – reaching their highest potential. The servant leader aims to empower people to self-actualise and become leaders, which (as with transformational theory) has been criticised for creating opportunity for unhealthy subordinate relationships (meaning hierarchies can be difficult to enforce). However, it is claimed that servant leaders can avoid this as their “belief system says he or she is no better than those who are led” (Lee & Zemke, 1993, p. 86).

In Conclusion…

Servant leaders’ main focus is on serving followers, without this being a means to meeting organisational aims. However, it is impossible to be certain of a leader’s true intentions. Servant leaders aim to empower followers to achieve their higher order needs (toward self-actualisation) and they also seem to rely heavily on their inherent, personal power. Servant leaders also aim to create a sense of community, which is brought about by first selecting people who fit with the organisation’s culture.

Therefore it seems that servant leadership holds great applicability toward community and voluntary organisations – a statement that has been supported in the literature. Greenleaf’s interest in community seems to further support his theory’s application to community and voluntary organisations. However, if we’re to believe the following quote by leadership experts, Jackson and Parry; servant leaders may also be just who we need in charge of our governments. After-all, they’re supposed to be serving us, right?

“This kind of (genuine) leadership (within community and voluntary organisations) relationship is something that is quite special and memorable…” “…It’s something that we should aim for if we wish to secure a sustainable future for everybody on the planet: the kind of leadership that is required if we are to confront complex and massive scale issues such as global warming, poverty and the control of virulent diseases.  Leaders will continue to play an important role in this relationship.  We will still need leaders, but they will be different types of leaders.” (Jackson & Parry, 2011, p. 15)

References

Chatman, J., & Eunyoung Cha, S. (2003). Leading by leveraging culture. California Management Review, 45, 19-34.

Greenleaf, R. K. (1970). The Servant as Leader.

Grint, K. (2005). Leadership: Limits and Possibilities. Palgrave.

Gronn, P. (2000). Distributed Properties: A New Architecture for Leadership. Educational Management Administration Leadership, 28(3), 317-338.

Jackson, B., & Parry, K. (2011). A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership (2nd ed.). London: Sage.

Kerr, J., & Slocum, J. (2005). Managing corporate culture through reward systems. Academy of Management Executives, 19, 130-138.

Lee, C., & Zemke, R. (1993). The search for spirit in the workplace. Training, 30, 21-28.

Maslow. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.

Patterson, K. (2003). Servant leadership: A theoretical model. Regent University.

Russell, R., & Stone, A. (2001). The role of values in servant leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22(2), 76-83.

Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. (2002). Servant leadership: its origins, development, and application in organizations. Journal of Leaderhip and Organization Studies, 9(2), 57-64.

Smith, B., Montagno, R., & Kuzmenko, T. (2004). Transformational and servant leadership: Content and contextual comparisons. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10(4), 80-91.

Smith, C. (2005). Servant Leadership: The Leadership Theory of Robert K Greenleaf.

Smith, C. (2005). The Leadership of Robert K. Greenleaf. UK: The Greenleaf Centre for Servat Leadership UK.

Spears, L. (1996). Refelctions on Robert K. Greenleaf and servant-leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 17(7), 33-35.

Waddell, J. T. (2006). Servant Leadership. Virginia: Servant Leadership Research Roundtable.

Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in Organizations. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

2016_09_16_distributedleadership

Distributed Leadership

2 Minute Read

“Distributed Leadership” differs from others as it does not involve a leader and many followers. Rather the situation is of many leaders, who are followers simultaneously/inter-changeably. It lacks a universally accepted definition (Wright, 2008). These theories have been dated back to 1250BC (Oduro, 2004, p. 4) and consider leadership to be a collective social process (Leadership as Process (Grint, 2005)) developing from the interactions between several people (Uhl-Bien, 2006). It is considered to be “more appropriately understood as a fluid and emergent, rather than as a fixed, phenomena” (Gronn P. , 2000, p. 324) i.e. roles are not specifically designated; they emerge through the interactions and negotiations of participants. As acknowledged in situational theories, Spillane (2001) states that leadership activity is constructed through the interaction between leaders, followers and the situation. In this case, people lead and follow depending on their experience in each situation. This suggests a reliance on personal power (Yukl, 2002). Gronn’s (2002) “holistic perspective” of Distributed Leadership shows how it is an emergent process whereby intuitive working relationships are formed over time and decisions are made collectively. This collective decision-making structure is often exhibited in committee structures. Mehra et al. (2006) have shown that teams exhibiting distributed leadership as opposed to traditional leader-centred approaches are more successful (judged by sales performance and team satisfaction). While popularly recognisable or charismatic leaders are often held up as heroes; it tends to go unacknowledged that they rely on the support of several other leaders (Bolden R. , 2011). Involving everyone in the decision-making process can be slower, but also encourages equality within the work force (MacBeath & Oduro, 2004) and empowers people to push their organisation in a direction that allows them to find personal meaning and achieve their own higher-order needs (Maslow, 1954).

Distributed leadership theories claim leadership to be a collective social process. The roles of leader and follower emerge and change depending on the requirements of a situation and the experience of those involved, indicating a reliance on personal power. Teams that exhibit distribution appear to be more successful than more leader-centred organisation and allow followers to achieve their higher order needs. However, the attraction of followers based on how they relate to the organisation is uncertain. Therefore it seems that distributed leadership has some applicability to community and voluntary organisations.